Drawing on the OLED Screen
This expriment will walk you through drawing to the OLED Expansion. We’ll create a script that draws lines to the OLED screen, along the way, we’ll learn about the essentials to create computer graphics. After all, fancy polygons and shaders in the games we love are just lines on the screen!
Drawing to The OLED Screen
The OLED is an efficient low-power screen that can be programmed to display any monochrome visuals included text, graphics, and even animations! In depth information about how the OLED operates can be found in the OLED Expansion article in the Hardware Overview section of the docs. It is highly recommended to have the OLED Python Module reference handy, as this expriment is entirely software based.
A Note on the Cursor
One important concept to understand is the cursor. The cursor is essentially the position of the next byte to be written to the screen. After a byte is written, the cursor will automaticaly advance once to the next pixel column, staying in the same page. Once the cursor reaches the end of a page, it wraps around to column 0 of the next page, and so on. In fact - it works just like the cursor in a word processor.
Just like we can fill a page in a word processor by holding ‘m’, we can call
oledExp.writeByte(0xff) multiple times to light up the whole OLED display. This works because
0xff is a byte that lights up all eight pixels under the cursor.
This behaviour we will soon use to simplify drawing things to the screen.
A Brief on Concepts We’ll Cover
One major concept we’ll be working with is a frame buffer.
Frame buffers work by storing a copy of the entire screen in memory for easy modification. It is then sent whole to be drawn on the screen once all the changes are finalized.
Since a frame buffer is an abstract idea, we’ll be using a multi-dimensional array to actually implement one in our code.
For bonus points, we’ll get involved with input and output to customize where our lines will go.
And as always, we’ll discuss all the concepts in detail after we’ve gotten hands on with the project.
Building the Circuit
The OLED Expansion is a complete circuit. So for this expriment, we just need to plug it into the Expansion Dock and we’ll be good to go!
What You’ll Need
1x Omega2 plugged into the Expansion Dock 1x OLED Expansion plugged into Expansion Dock
Writing the Code
Today’s code will start to dip into low level graphics programming! On some level, all digital screens operate much the same way: turning pixels on and off. But the devil is always in the details. For our OLED screen, we can draw directly to the screen by moving the cursor and writing a byte. However this program will actually write to a buffer first, then draw the entire screen in one go, we’ll explain in detail in a bit.
First, lets get to coding: copy the code below into a file named
MAK06-drawingLines.py, and run it on your Omega to see it in action.
from OmegaExpansion import oledExp initStatus = 0 powerStatus = 0 memModeStatus = 0 HOR = True VER = False X_MAX = 127 Y_MAX = 63 COL_MAX = 127 PAGE_MAX = 7 byte = 0xff class buffer: def __init__ (self): self.frame = self.getEmptyFrame() # This function writes a byte to the frame buffer at the specified location # it also sanitizes the coordinates if they are out of bounds (otherwise the program would crash) def writeByteToBuffer (self, column, page, byte): # sanitize the input coordinates if (page > PAGE_MAX): page = PAGE_MAX if (column > COL_MAX): column = COL_MAX # add the byte to the frame buffer self.frame[column][page] = byte # Here we draw the entire frame buffer to the OLED screen def drawToScreen (self): for column in self.frame: for byte in column: oledExp.writeByte (byte) # Creates and returns a new, empty frame buffer def getEmptyFrame(self): # use two comprehensions to create a 128x8 array populated with all zeroes return [ [0 for i in range(0, PAGE_MAX+1)] for j in range(0, COL_MAX+1)] # Setup the OLED Expansion for displaying images def initOled(): initStatus = oledExp.driverInit(); powerStatus = oledExp.setDisplayPower(1) memModeStatus = oledExp.setMemoryMode(1) # Function that requests input to obtain a 'position' # arguments allow changing what position is asked for and the limits on the position for error checking def getPosition (maxPos, orientation, located): pos = 0 while (True): print ('Which ' + orientation + ' should the line ' + located) # Getting input from user pos = raw_input('>>> ') # ensure the user only inputs numbers try: pos = int (pos, 10) except ValueError as e: print ('Numbers only please!') if (type(pos) != int or pos > maxPos or pos < 0): print ('That\'s out of range, please try again.') else: return pos def drawLine(currentFrame, orientation, headPos, startPos, endPos): # in case the user reversed the start and end numbers if (startPos > endPos): tmp = startPos startPos = endPos endPos = tmp # This loop draws the line to the buffer based on the data obtained above - where it starts, where it ends, and the orientation # The data has all been error checked to keep this step super neat if (orientation == VER): for y in range (startPos, endPos): currentFrame.writeByteToBuffer(headPos, y, byte) else: for x in range (startPos, endPos): currentFrame.writeByteToBuffer(x, headPos, byte) # write the buffer to the screen status = currentFrame.drawToScreen() def main(): # Starts up the OLED screen and sets it up to display images instead of text initOled() orientation = 0 # creating a local buffer object currentFrame = buffer() # main loop while (True): # Obtain the orientation of the line while (True): print ('Enter the orientation of the line (0 for vertical, 1 for horizontal): ') orientation = raw_input() orientation = int(orientation, 10) if (orientation != 0 and orientation != 1): print ('Please enter either 1 or 2') else: break # Changing the questions asked depending according to orientation if (orientation == VER): headPosMax = COL_MAX endPosMax = PAGE_MAX headAskedWord = 'column' lineAskedWord = 'row' else: headPosMax = PAGE_MAX endPosMax = COL_MAX headAskedWord = 'row' lineAskedWord = 'column' # Obtaining the column or row the line will exist in headPos = getPosition(headPosMax, headAskedWord, 'occupy?') # Obtaining the starting and ending positions of the line startPos = getPosition(endPosMax, lineAskedWord, 'start on?') endPos = getPosition(endPosMax, lineAskedWord, 'end on?') # draw to the OLED screen drawLine(currentFrame, orientation, headPos, startPos, endPos) # note that this command is outside of the while loop body oledExp.clear() if __name__ == '__main__': main()
What to Expect
The program will first ask for the orientation (horizontal or vertical), then where the line will be placed (in which row/column), and then it will ask for the length of the line by asking for the starting point and ending point along the stated direction.
The lines you draw will stay on the screen because the buffer never gets cleared, and you can draw as many as you like. To exit the script, simply press
A Closer Look at the Code
A buffer works by storing an entire screen of output data in memory to make it easy to change. Then after all the operations to change the output image are completed, it will draw the entire thing to the screen all at once.
In the code we do this by first creating a frame buffer as a multi-dimensional array. Then drawing the lines into it. Finally calling
oledExp.writeByte() continuously until the entire screen is drawn (
128*8 = 1024 times, to be exact) from the data in the buffer.
Additionally, we did a good deal of filtering on the user inputs to ensure the data being sent to the display is error-free.
We’ll break these concepts down in the next few sections
A multidimensional array is an array of arrays. While that might sound a little confusing, it’s actually a pretty cool concept! By default, arrays in Python are single dimensions, with each element holding some data. For example
[1, 2, 3] is an array of three integers. A multidimensional array simply swaps those integer elements with arrays. A two dimensional array holds the data in two ‘levels’, for example for
Array = [ [1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6,] ] is a 2 by 3 matrix represented as a two dimensional array.
To access elements in two dimensional arrays, two indices are needed, In the example above, if we access
Array we’ll get
[1, 2, 3] back. Recall that arrays in Python start at 0, so the we’re accessing the zeroth (yes, that’s a word) element of the
Array variable. The number ‘3’ can be accessed with
Array. What we’re doing is grabbing the
Array array (which is
[1, 2, 3]) and then accessing the element indexed by
2, which is the number ‘3’.
In the code, we use a two dimensional array to represent the screen. Each individual element corresponds to a byte on the screen, so if we want to write a certain byte at some page Y and segment X, the corresponding byte in the array should be the one we need written.
Recall that a byte is always drawn at the position of the cursor, and the cursor will advance one segment (or one page and reset to segment 0 if the end is reached) after every writing each byte.
Using a Buffer
In the script provided, we create a
buffer class which handles all the drawing to screen and filling of the buffer. When an object is created from the buffer class, it initializes an empty two dimensional array of size 128x8. This array represents the screen in terms of segments (horizontal) and pages (vertical). To borrow a film term, we’ll call all the data held by the buffer as a frame - like a still frame from a film.
In the main function, we create an infinite loop to continuously populate the buffer with new lines as dictated by the orientation, which row or column it is located in, and length, right after this line:
# main loop
At the end of the loop, we call
currentFrame.writeByteToBuffer to update the buffer with the new line we wish to draw, and
currentFrame.drawToScreen to actually make it appear. The lines drawn previously are actually held within the buffer
currentFrame, and since
oledExp.clear() is never called until the end, the buffer will remember all the previously drawn lines and display them when the
currentFrame.drawToScreen is called.
The reason buffers are used is to keep drawing to screen separated from creating a frame. If there is multiple layers to a frame and they are created by different processes, it makes good sense to assembled them all before outputting the layered result. A buffer allows us to do this quickly and effectively, since it’s entirely in memory. Once the buffer is done, we send it out to be drawn to screen all at once.
So we populate the buffer with as much information as possible (the entire line) and then draw it all in one go to maximize efficiency. The same process happens in your computer when playing games, the buffer gets filled and edited by the game code iteratively: drawing a tree first, then filling in your character, and so on. When update time comes, the entire buffer is sent to the screen and displayed.
If you quit the program and then restart it, you’ll notices the lines disappearing. This is because all the data in the buffer is dynamic memory - it is only around when the program that generated it is still running.
You’ll probably notice there’s a lot of error checking and user direction in this script. This is because the program asks for many different types of input. To make it worse, previous input will change the way future input is interpreted. As a taste, this is how complicated even ‘simple’ command line tools can become.
We can’t use command-line arguments here because to do so would be we’d have to restart the program every time. This will clear out the line we’ve drawn previously as it’s not saved to a file anywhere.
Flexibility versus Cost
The OLED screen we use is pretty different from the ones you have on the latest smartphones and tablets. It isn’t designed to be addressable through exact pixel co-ordinates (as you already know). This is because the screen is intended to be used as a text rendering screen. There’s no real reason to have expensive pixel rendering hardware if the screen isn’t intended to draw graphics and animations. In fact, that’s why it’s divided into pages, not ‘rows’ - it makes it very easy at a hardware level to draw text to it!
To make the code simple to understand, we followed suit, and drew only bytes. That’s why the horizontal lines are eight pixels tall, because the pages are eight pixels tall. There’s definitely way to draw pixel by pixel using a pixel-based buffer and translating it to bytes. If you want to go further, try implementing it!
Next time, we make some noise.